Révélations sur Le Monde de Némo : le cannibalisme intra-utérin
En 2003 sortait l’un des dessins animés Pixar qui a eu le plus de succès, Le Monde de Némo. La bande-annonce pour les nostalgiques :
Et l’on nous prépare la suite, Le Monde de Dory, (l’histoire du chirurgien bleu Paracanthurus hepatus à la mémoire défaillante) qui sera sur nos écrans le 29 juin 2016. Succès mérité, certes, mais sans doute pas en raison de son réalisme zoologique, nous en avons parlé ici. Pour rappel, le vrai destin de Némo aurait dû être l’inceste transgenre ou l’infanticide par son père. Il a peut-être eu de la chance d’être enlevé par un plongeur…
Aujourd’hui, nous allons nous attarder sur quelques-uns des personnages remarquables du film, les trois requins végétariens.
Certains ont des pratiques, comment dire… vous verrez par vous-mêmes comment les définir. D’abord, voyons de quelles espèces sont les trois membres des Mangeurs de Poissons Anonymes.
Bruce est un grand requin blanc Carcharodon carcharias. Selon la légende, Bruce était le nom que donnait Steven Spielberg au requin mécanique utilisé lors du tournage des Dents de la mer.
Chumy est un requin mako Isurus oxyrinchus, ou requin taupe.
Et enfin, Enclume est un… requin marteau Sphyrna mokarran.
Ici, c’est leur mode de reproduction qui va nous intéresser. Et là, c’est le bazar…
Au début, tout est simple. Chez toutes les espèces, la fécondation est interne, le mâle introduisant ses spermatozoïdes à l'intérieur de la femelle. Simple ? Enfin, presque, car les requins ont deux pénis, ou plutôt des ptérygopodes. Ces organes résultent de la mutation de la nageoire pelvienne en un tuyau articulé pouvant être muni d'une épine. De leur côté, les femelles ont deux utérus.
Peut-on alors déterminer le sexe de Bruce, Chumy et Enclume ? Oui, et en image !
Après l’accouplement et la fécondation, toutes les combinaisons sont possibles. Certaines espèces sont ovipares, c’est-à-dire qu’elles pondent des œufs, le plus souvent dans des endroits calmes.
La plupart des requins sont vivipares : les œufs se développent dans l’utérus et les petits sont libérés au moment de l’éclosion. Dans deux familles, les Carcharinidae et les Sphyrnidae, le requin marteau Enclume faisant partie de cette dernière, une sorte de placenta se met en place qui permet aux jeunes d’être nourris par leur mère : ce sont presque des mammifères !
Plus étonnant, on a montré que plusieurs naissances de requin-marteau, par exemple dans un zoo du Nebraska aux États-Unis, résultaient d’une parthénogenèse, c’est-à-dire que l’ovule s’est développé sans fécondation par un spermatozoïde !
Enfin, quelques espèces sont ovovivipares. Les embryons se développent dans les œufs à l'intérieur des voies génitales femelles où ils éclosent, mais ils y restent jusqu’à leur naissance proprement dite. Leur subsistance est assurée par les réserves d’un organe particulier, le vitellus. C’est le cas du grand requin blanc (Bruce) et du mako (Chumy), mais aussi du requin taureau, du requin taupe…
Là où l’affaire se corse et tourne au cauchemar, c’est que dans le ventre de leur mère, les petits requins ne sont pas à l’abri de tout danger… ils sont menacés par leurs propres frères et sœurs. Plus précisément, le premier des petits requins qui éclot dans un des utérus dévore les embryons de ses frères et sœurs voisins pour mieux grandir. En fin de compte, un seul requin plus gros et plus fort naît de chaque utérus.
D’ailleurs, c’est bien plus parlant en vidéo ! Voir un embryon de requin croquer ses frères et sœurs, ça ne va pas aider à améliorer la réputation des squales !
Cette pratique de cannibalisme intra-utérin est nommée l’adelphophagie. Lorsque ce sont les œufs qui servent de repas, on parle d'oophagie. J’espère que le scénario du Monde de Dory tiendra compte de ce comportement, ce sera du meilleur effet avec une réplique du genre : « Les poissons sont nos amis on y touche plus ! Mon frère m’est resté sur l’estomac. » Après les dents de la mère, les dents du frangin !
Pour en savoir plus.
- D. Chapman et al., Virgin Birth in a hammerhead shark, 2007.
- D. Chapman et al., The behavioural and genetic mating system of the sand tiger shark, Carcharias taurus, an intrauterine cannibal, Biology Letters, 2003.
euh ... petite nuance: la consommation des embryons dans les voies génitales, c'est l'adelphophagie, donc des embryons et oeufs en cours de développement
l'oophagie, c'est la consommation des oeufs/ovules, fécondés ou pas
les deux cas existent chez les requins
Merci. J'ai corrigé.
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